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Turbo Types: Classifications and Examples

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Various water turbo types have been developed to exchange energy between water flow and hydraulic machines. There are multiple methods for classifying turbo types. Let’s look into them. Learn automobile development from courses like the Automotive BIW design course. 

Turbo Types Based on the Compressibility of the Fluid Passing Through the Machine

As a result, there are two kinds of turbomachines:

Turbomachines for Compressible Fluid

Changes in fluid density occur in these machines as pressure changes. The first category includes gas turbines, steam turbines, and compressors.

Fluid Incompressible Turbomachines

During the energy exchange process, the fluid density in these machines remains constant. The second category includes pumps and water turbines.

As a result, we are now only dealing with the second category, turbo types with incompressible fluids.

Turbo Types Based on the Fluid Flow Path in the Wheel

Turbo types can be classified into three broad categories based on this criterion:

Centrifugal or Radial Turbos

The fluid enters the impeller chamber via the rotating radial vanes. As a result, centrifugal forces draw the liquid towards the center, increasing the fluid’s energy and pressure during this operation. Among these turbos, types are many well-known pumps in the industry.

Axial Turbochargers

The turbo is axial when the fluid path is parallel to the machine’s axis. Among this turbo, types are the Kaplan turbine and some water pumps.

Mixed Flow Turbos

Mixed flow machines are turbo types in which the fluid pathway contains both radial and axial components. The modern Francis turbine, as well as some pumps, are of the mixed type.

Turbo Types Based on How the Fluid feeds the Wheel.

In terms of how the fluid required for the machine’s operation is supplied, there are two turbo types.

Complete Wheel Feeding

The fluid surrounds the entire Wheel and enters through the whole surface. As seen in Francis or Kaplan turbines.

Wheel Feeding in Parts

Fluid enters the machine from one or more parts in turbo types, such as the Pelton turbine.

Turbo Types Based on How the Static Pressure Changes

Turbomachines are classified into two types based on this:

Turbos Impulse

The rotary machine is of the impulse type when the fluid’s static pressure remains constant while passing through the Wheel. The same thing happens to water when it exchanges energy with a Pelton turbine.

Turbo Reactions

Like the Kaplan turbine, the pressure changes as it passes through the wheels of these turbos.

Turbo Types Based on How Energy Is Transferred

There are two types of turbos based on the amount of energy transferred from the source to the machine or vice versa:

Turbochargers for Power Consumption

This type of machine transfers mechanical energy from the turbo to the fluid. Pumps are one type of machine. Compressors are a subset of compressible devices.

Turbochargers for Power Supply

Fluid energy is transferred to the machine in these machines, causing the Wheel to rotate, resulting in mechanical energy. This mechanical energy can be converted into electrical energy using a generator, similar to how water turbines work. Understand Finite Element Analysis from basics with the help of FEA courses.

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